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popularization of science How much do you know about the most comprehensive switch terminology?

Date:November 18th,2023 View:90
With the development of the network and communication industry, the switch market is steadily on the rise. It has the characteristics of high performance to price ratio, high flexibility, relative simplicity, and easy implementation. Ethernet technology has become the most important LAN networking technology today, with switches applied in various industries. So how much do you know about the terminology related to switches?
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1. Switch



A switch is a device used to implement a switched network, and in the OSI model of iSO, it is located on the second layer& Flash& Amp; Flash; The data link layer device is an intelligent device that can operate on frames< Br/>


2. IEEE802.3



Ethernet standard< Br/>


3. IEEE802.3u



Fast Ethernet standard< Br/>


4. IEEE802.3ab



Gigabit Ethernet (unshielded twisted pair) standard< Br/>


5. IEEE802.3z



Gigabit Ethernet (fiber optic, copper) standard< Br/>


6. IEEE802.3x



Flow control standards< Br/>


7. IEEE802.1X



Port based access control standards< Br/>


8. IEEE802.1q



VLAN standard< Br/>


9. IEEE802.1p



Flow priority control standards< Br/>


10. IEEE802.1d



Spanning Tree Protocol< Br/>


11. Data link layer



Located in the second layer of the ISO/OSI reference model, it is responsible for errorless transmission of data on a frame by frame basis through a series of methods such as detection, flow control, and retransmission on the line between nodes, making it appear as an error free link from its upper layer (network layer)< Br/>


12. Full and half duplex



In the network, full duplex refers to the use of two independent channels for reception and transmission, which can be carried out simultaneously without interference with each other. Half duplex, on the other hand, shares the same channel for receiving and sending, and can only send or receive at the same time, so half duplex may cause conflicts. The switch we are talking about is a full duplex device, while the hub is a half duplex device< Br/>


13. MAC address



The MAC address is the address used in the media access layer, or more commonly, the physical address of the network card (LAN node). In the physical transmission process at the bottom of the network, the host (LAN node) is identified by its physical address, which is generally globally unique. Nowadays, MAC addresses generally use 6 bytes and 48 bits< Br/>


14. IP address



An IP address is a 32-bit address assigned to each host connected to the Internet. Each host can be accessed through an IP address< Br/>


15. Auto Negotiation



The Auto-Negotiation standard enables switches to adapt to operating rates and modes in the following order: 100M full duplex, 100M half duplex, 10M full duplex, and 10M half duplex< Br/>


16. Full duplex flow control



Following the IEEE802.3x standard, when the network is congested, network devices use predefined Pause frames for flow control< Br/>


17. Half duplex flow control (Backpressure technology)



Based on the IEEE802.3x standard, when the processor detects that the buffer is about to fill, it sends a false collision signal to the source station, causing it to delay for a random time before continuing to send. Can alleviate and eliminate congestion< Br/>


18. Linear speed



The theoretical maximum value of data forwarded by the switch< Br/>


19. Broadcast storm control



The abnormal phenomenon of the rapid increase in the number of broadcast frames on the network (due to being forwarded) affecting normal network communication. Broadcast storms can occupy a considerable objective network bandwidth, causing the entire network to be unable to function properly. Broadcast storm control allows ports to filter broadcast storms that occur on the network. After enabling broadcast storm control, when the broadcast frames received by the port accumulate to the predetermined threshold value, the port will automatically discard the received broadcast frames. When this function is not enabled or the broadcast frames have not accumulated to the threshold, the broadcast frames will be broadcast to other ports of the switch normally< Br/>


20. TRUNK (Port Aggregation)



Usually used to aggregate multiple ports together to form a high bandwidth data transmission channel. The switch considers all ports gathered together as a logical port< Br/>


21. VLAN (VirtualLocalAreaNetwork), Virtual LAN)



It is a broadcast domain composed of a group of terminal workstations, and hosts (switch ports) located in the same VLAN can communicate with each other. It can establish logical workgroups without considering specific wiring structures. Flexible configuration to increase system security< Br/>


22. PortVLAN



Port based VLANs require communication between the same VLAN ports< Br/>


23. TagVLAN



Based on IEEE802.1Q, use VID to partition different VLANs< Br/>


24. VID (VLANID)



The identifier of a VLAN, used to represent a TagVLAN< Br/>


25. MTUVLAN



When setting the VLAN of the switch, divide the ports occupied by each user and the uplink ports into a separate VLAN< Br/>


26. MAC address aging time



Each port in the switch has the function of automatically learning addresses, and the source addresses (source MAC address, switch port number) of frames sent and received through the ports will be stored in the address table. Aging time is a parameter that affects the learning process of switches. Starting from the addition of an address record to the address table, if each port does not receive a frame with a source address of that MAC address within the aging time, these addresses will be deleted from the dynamic forwarding address table (consisting of the source MAC address, destination MAC address, and their corresponding switch port numbers). The static MAC address table is not affected by address aging time< Br/>


27. Static Address Table



The difference between static MAC addresses and general dynamic MAC addresses obtained through learning. Once a static address is added, it will remain valid until deleted and is not limited by the maximum aging time. The static address table records the static address of the port. In the static address table, a MAC address corresponds to a port. If set, all data sent to this address will only be forwarded to that port. Also known as MAC address binding< Br/>


28. MAC address filtering



MAC address filtering is achieved by configuring filtering addresses, allowing switches to filter data frames that are not expected to be forwarded. When a restricted MAC address is connected to the switch, the switch will automatically filter out frames with a destination address of this address to achieve security purposes. The addresses in the filter address table are effective for all switch ports. Addresses that have been added to the filtered address table cannot be added to the static address table, nor can they be dynamically bound by ports< Br/>


29. Dynamic MAC address binding



Dynamic address binding refers to the ability of a switch's port to dynamically learn MAC addresses in a dynamic address binding state, but the number of addresses that can be learned is limited. When a port learns a MAC address, it is immediately bound and continues to learn the next address. The bound address is not limited by aging time and will remain in effect. After learning a certain number of addresses, the port no longer learns and binds. The MAC address bound by the port will not be deleted until the port address binding function is disabled or the switch is restarted< Br/>


30. Port security



When port security is enabled on a certain port, the port will not learn new MAC addresses and only forward data frames from the learned MAC addresses, while other data frames will be discarded. The judgment condition is: if the source address of the frame sent to the switch is a member of the MAC address table of the port, forwarding is allowed, otherwise it will be discarded. When port security is selected; Ldquo; Disable& Rdquo; At this time, the port will resume automatic learning of new MAC addresses and forward the received frames< Br/>


31. Port bandwidth control



The input and output data transmission rate of each port (except for the module port) can be limited by bandwidth< Br/>


32. Port monitoring



Port monitoring is the process of copying packets from the monitored port to the monitoring port, where a host with packet analysis software is installed. The network administrator analyzes the collected data packets to perform network monitoring and troubleshoot network problems< Br/>


33. Cable detection



When a suitable twisted pair is connected to the switch port, the status of the twisted pair can be tested through the switch to confirm if there are any problems and where they occur< Br/>


34. SNMP



Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an OSI layer 7 (application layer) protocol used for remote monitoring and configuration of network devices. SNMP enables network management workstations to read and modify the settings of gateways, routers, switches, and other network devices< Br/>


35. IGMP (InternetGroupManagementProtocol)



IP manages multicast communication by using switches, multicast routers, and IGMP capable hosts. A group of hosts, routers (or switches) communicate multicast data streams with members belonging to the same multicast group. And all devices in this group use the same multicast group address. IGMPSnooping technology is targeted at applications such as video on demand, significantly improving network utilization. In the internet, when it comes to various types of mediaWhen using IP multicast communication for physical applications, you can reduce unnecessary bandwidth usage by setting IGMP on each port of the switch< Br/>


36. IEEE802.1D/STP



When the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol detects the presence of a loop on the network, it automatically disconnects the loop connection. When there are multiple connections between switches, only the primary connection will be activated and all other connections will be blocked, turning these connections into backup connections. When there is a problem with the main connection, the spanning tree protocol will automatically activate a backup connection to take over the work of the main connection, without any manual intervention< Br/>


37. IEEE802.1X Authentication Protocol



PortBaseNetworkAccessControlProtocol. The protocol architecture is divided into three parts: client, authentication system, and authentication server< Br/>


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